What Are The Main Components of DBMS?

Here, we will learn about the components of Database Management Systems in detail. In the environment of DBMS, each module or component performs a specific operation or task.
Database Management System includes the following six major components:

  1. Software
  2. Hardware
  3. Data
  4. Procedure
  5. Database Access Language
  6. User


Software is the primary component because it handles and manages everything in the Database Management System. The software in the DBMS acts as a bridge between the end-user and the database. It provides an easy-to-use interface to interact with the users. So, the users can easily access, store, and modify the data in the database.
It understands the database access language easily and interprets the database language into the actual database commands which are to be run on the database.


It is one of the most important modules of the database management system. This component is a set of physical electronic devices which make the interface between the computer and the end-user. We cannot implement the database management system without the hardware devices.
This component helps to store the data or information in the database. This component consists of magnetic disks such as floppy disk, hard disk, zip disk, etc. on which data is stored using the various input/output devices. It also consists of a processor and main memory which helps to access and store the data in a fast and efficient  manner.


It is also an important component in the DBMS environment. It is the component for which the database management system is designed. The aim of creating the DBMS is to store a huge amount of data.
This component acts as a bridge between the hardware, software, and the user which directly access data through application programs.

In the database management system data may be of following different types:

  • User Data
  • Meta Data, and
  • Application Data.


User Data

In DBMS, the ‘user data’ is the data which is present as data in tables. In tables, columns are called attributes or fields, and rows are called records or tuples.

Meta Data

Metadata is defined as data about data. In simple words, it is the description of the database structure. Examples of metadata are:
1. Number of tables in the database,
2. Name of the tables in the database,
3. Name of fields in the database table,
4. Primary key fields,
5. Foreign key fields, etc.

Application Metadata

In DBMS, application metadata is the structure and format of the queries and reports.


It is another essential component of the DBMS environment. Procedures are the instructions and the rules which help the users to manage the database and to use the database management system.
Following are the various procedures which help to manage and use the DBMS:
1. To setup and install the new database management system is a procedure in DBMS.
2. To login to the database in the DBMS software.
3. To use and manages the database or application programs in the software of the database management system.
4. There is also an important procedure that helps to create the backup copies of the database.
5. Another procedure is to generate the reports of data retrieved from the DBMS database.

Database Access Language

This component is very useful in the database management system. It is a language which is used to retrieve the data from the database, insert the new data into the database, modify the existing data, and delete the inserted data from the database.
Every user writes the specific command in the database access language to perform their operations. And, then the user submits these commands to the database management system. Then, the DBMS executes the commands and displays the result into the user-readable form.


Users play an important role in the database management system. In today’s time, the user creates or makes a large amount of data which is stored in the database. Users manage the database and perform the different operations on the database in the DBMS.

Following are the different types of users who manage and use the database:

  • Application Programmers
  • Database Administrator (DBA)
  • End-User

Application Programmer

Application programmers are those users who develop and design the part of the database in the various programming languages.

Database Administrator (DBA)

Database Administrators are those users of DBMS, whose responsibility is to manage the database management system. They are also responsible to maintain the security and integrity of data. They perform all the activities, which maintain the environment of the database.


End-Users are those users of DBMS, who interact with it for performing the different operations on the database. End-Users execute the database commands to store, retrieve, add, and delete the data.

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