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Types of DBMS


Here, we will learn about various types of Database Management Systems in detail. Different Database Management Systems were introduced to fulfill the requirement of the users. And, all these database systems are based on the data models.

Following are the different types of Database Management Systems (DBMS):
  1. Hierarchical Database Management System
  2. Network Database Management System
  3. Relational Database Management System
  4. Object-Oriented Database Management System

Hierarchical Database Management System

In the early 1960s, the Hierarchical Database Management system was introduced by IBM. Hierarchical DBMS is that DBMS, which stores or represents the data or information in parent-child relationship nodes. In this DBMS, a parent may have multiple children, but each child has only one parent.  
Here, the data is organized in the tree-like structure, which is as same as the folder system in our computer systems. So, this management system is easy to access and modify. In the tree, the first node is called the root node. If any user wants to access the data, then he/she have to access the tree from the root node.
This management system is most widely used in the industries of banking and telecommunication for managing applications. 
Advantages of Hierarchical Database Management System
Following are the advantages or benefits of the Hierarchical Database Management System:
1. The main advantage is that it expresses the relationship between data and information.
2. Another big advantage is that it manages a huge amount of data.
3. It is so efficient because of the one-to-many relationship.
4. This database management system improves the sharing of data.

Disadvantages of Hierarchical Database Management System

Following are the disadvantages or limitations of the Hierarchical Database Management System:
1. The flexibility of this management system is so poor.
2. Its structure is complex and rigid.
3. This database management system is difficult to manage.
4. The implementation of Hierarchical DBMS is complex because its implementation depends on the physical storage of the data.

Network Database Management System

Network Database Management system was developed by Charles Bachman in the year of 1969. This management system uses the network structure which allows having more than one parent for a single child. In the network DBMS, the parent is called as an occupier and the child is called as a member.
This Database management system is also has a hierarchical structure, but it organizes the data in a graph-like structure i.e., many-to-many relationships. This system is mainly used on large digital computers.
In this system, the data is more related to each other, so users can access the data easily and fastly. Before the introduction of relational DBMS, it is that system which is most widely used.
Some example of Network Database Management system are:
Univac DMs-1100,
Raima Database Manager, and
Integrated Data Store.
Advantages of Network Database Management System
Following are the advantages or benefits of Network Database Management System:
1. Just like the hierarchical management system, this system is also simple and easy to design and implement. 
2. This management system promotes data integrity. 
3. As compared to the hierarchical system, data access is easier and flexible in this database management system.
4. The main advantage of this system is that it can easily handle many to many relationships.  
5. As compared to the hierarchical system, it deals with a large amount of information and more useful. 

Disadvantages of Network Database Management System

Following are the disadvantages or limitations of the Network Database Management System:
1. One of the big disadvantages of this database management system is that it is more complex than the other database systems. 
2. In this type of database system, data or information is related in complicated ways. 
3. The structure of the network database is complicated, so the structural changes to the database are very difficult. 

Relational Database Management System

Relational Database Management System was introduced by Edgar Frank Codd in the year of 1970. RDBMS is an abbreviation of the Relational Database Management System. This database management system is the most popular and widely used system among all the database management systems. 
RDBMS is a common type of database management system, which stores the data or information in the tables i.e., in the form of rows and columns. In the database tables, rows indicate the records and columns indicate the fields.
The data or information stored in the tables can be accessed or modified by using the SQL query language.  
Some examples of RDBMS are: 
Oracle Database,
MySQL, 
IBM DB2,
Microsoft SQL Server, 
Microsoft Access, etc. 
Advantages of Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
Following are the advantages or benefits of the Relational Database Management System:
1. The main advantage of RDBMS is that it is easy to use and understand. 
2. It provides more than one interface for the user. 
3. It removes the redundancy of the data. 
4. Another important advantage of this system is that it provides a better backup and recovery of the information. 
5. This database management system is simpler than the hierarchical and network database system. 

Disadvantages of Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)

Following are the disadvantages or limitations of the Relational Database Management System:
1. The main disadvantage of RDBMS is that it is expensive. The cost of setting up and maintain the relational database systems is high.  
2. Sometimes, this type of database system becomes complex due to the growth of a large amount of data in the database.
3. There is a requirement of specialized database administrators for managing the databases. 
4. They are not able to store a large amount of records i.e., 100s of Gigabytes (GBs). 

Object-Oriented Database Management System

In the early 1980s, object-oriented database management systems were introduced. The object-Oriented Database Management system is also known as Object Database Management System
It is a database management system that represents and stores the data in the form of objects and classes. This type of database system deals with object-oriented programming languages (c++ and Java) which use the objects.
The object oriented database system becomes common for OOPS programming languages such as C#, Java, Smalltalk, and Lisp. This management system is a hybrid application that combines the features of the relational database and principles of object-oriented programming for processing the data. 


Advantages of Object-Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS)

Following are the advantages or benefits of Object-Oriented Database Management System:
1. This database system works well with the OOPS languages. 
2. This management system improves performance in the case of object-based applications. 
3. As compared to other database systems, this DBMS capable of storing different types of data.
4. Codes can be re-used because of the inheritance feature.
5. In the OODBMS, there is a tight coupling between the data and application which makes schema evolution more feasible. 

Disadvantages of Object-Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS)

Following are the disadvantages or limitations of Object-Oriented Database Management System:
1. The main disadvantage of this system is that it is not popular as a Relational Database system. So, it is difficult to find the developers of the object database. 
2. This type of database is difficult to understand for non-programmers. 
3. Various programming languages do not support object database systems.