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Cloud Computing Tutorial

What is Cloud?

Cloud refers to those servers which are accessed over the internet, and the databases and software which are run on those servers. Cloud also refers to the network or internet. Cloud means something which is present at a remote location.

What is Cloud Computing?

Cloud Computing is a technology based on the virtualisation, which allows users for creating, customising, and configuring the applications through the internet.
It is basically used to store and access the data and applications across the Internet rather than the hard disk of a computer. We can easily store and access any type of data like images, videos, files, documents, etc.
It provides lots of services through the internet such as servers, networking, software, and databases.
In the concept of cloud computing, the internet plays an essential role because without it we cannot access and store the data.
Those companies which provide the services of the cloud allow the users for storing the files and applications on remote servers. And, the user can access them from any device, because the storage is not on the user's device but on servers in the data center. For example, If any user logs in to the Instagram account on a new phone when the old phone is broken, then he/she get all their photos, videos, and all conversations history due to this technology.
Following are the various examples where cloud computing is widely used today:
1. Amazon Web Services (AWS)
2. Google Cloud (Images, Videos, Docs).
3. Microsoft Azure
4. Facebook
5. Instagram
6. Dropbox

Features of Cloud Computing

In the World, this technology is growing popular day by day, so it provides various key features or characteristics which are discussed below. In the following features, first-five characteristics are most important because they are defined by the NIST
1. On-Demand Self Service:
This is one of the essential features of cloud computing. The services of cloud computing does not need a human administrator, users manage and use the services on demand.  

2. Resource Pooling:

This technology uses the multi-tenancy feature, which is used for sharing the pool of resources to more than one customer. In simple words, we can say that this feature provides the same application or same physical infrastructure to multiple users with the security over their data or information.   

3. Broad Network Access:

The resources of cloud computing are available across the network and can be easily accessible from anywhere entire world with the help of internet connection. 

4. Rapid Elasticity:

The services provided by the Cloud Computing technology are scalable. The users or customers can use the services they want and discard the service they do not wants. When the users requirement gets over from the services, then the services are scaled out.

5. Measured Services:
The cloud service provider automatically monitors or detects the provision of services or resources for various reasons. This feature is one of the five components of the definition given by the NIST. It is a term which is applied to the cloud computing by the IT professionals. 

6. Reliability:
The servers of this technology is more reliable because there is a less chance of infrastructure failure. If anyone of the server is damaged, then the resources get from the other servers.  

7. Security:
The services of cloud computing provides the advanced security to your data or information. This technology creates the number of copies of a data, so that the data may not get lost if any one of the server damages.

8. Compatibility:
The services of the cloud enables the users for accessing the data from any location on any hardware device.  

History of Cloud Computing

In this section, you will learn how the "Cloud Computing" technology came into the IT sector. We will describe its history year wise:
1950:
The concept of this technology came into existence in the year of 1950. In this year, the mainframe computers were huge and occupy the entire rooms as storage.
The cost of buying and maintaining these computers are high, so the organisations cannot afford to purchase the mainframe computer for each user.
In this year, John McCarthy (Computer Scientist) gives the concept of Time Sharing. 'Time sharing' is the premise of cloud computing. 

1969:
In this year, Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider developed the network, which becomes the basis of the Internet whose name is ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency Network). His aim is that everyone can receive the data and programs on any website from anywhere in the globe.

1970:
In this year, IBM company released an important operating system called "VMWare", which allows the admins or users to run the multiple systems on the same physical device. 


1999:
The word "cloud computing" came into the existence in this year, when the SalesForce company starts delivering the services to the users through its website salesforce.com with the help of the Internet.  

2002:
In this year, Amazon company started the Amazon Web Services, which is used for 
providing the services such as computation, storage, and human intelligence. 

2006:
In this year, Amazon introduced its advanced cloud service, which is EC2 (Elastic Compute cloud). This EC2 service allows the users to run all the applications on their computers on the cloud. After that, Amazon also introduced the S3 service. 

2008:
In the month of April, Google introduced the Google App Engine, which provides low-cost services for computation and storage. 

2010:
In the month of February, Microsoft introduced the Microsoft Azure for providing the services. This cloud technology of Microsoft wants its customers/users to run the  applications of  Windows-based using the Azure over the internet.
And, today, the various companies like HP, Oracle, Microsoft, Amazon, etc. are providing a lot of services over the Internet to users, small businesses, and large enterprises all over the world. 


Architecture of Cloud Computing

The architecture of this technology is a combination of event-driven and service-oriented architecture. It consists of many components of a cloud which are loosely coupled.
Its architecture is mainly divided into the following two ends. In the architecture, each end is connected to each other through a network, which is also called as internet.
1. Front End
2. Back End

The following diagram describes the architecture of cloud computing:



Front End


The Front End is that part of the architecture, which is used by the customers, clients, and end-users for interacting with the cloud services. It comprises the various applications and interfaces which helps user for accessing the cloud computing technology.  The example of front-end platform is "Web Browser" like Firefox, Google Chrome, etc. 


Back End

The Back End is that platform of architecture, which is used by the service provider. This platform consists of various resources for providing the services of cloud computing to client-side users. The Back End is also known as "cloud" part of the cloud computing architecture. 
This platform comprises of huge amount of data storage, servers, virtual machines, deployment models, services, etc. 


Advantages of Cloud computing

Here are following various benefits or advantages of cloud computing:
1. Cloud Computing reduces the maintenance and operational cost of software and hardware.
2. It provides a huge capacity for storing the data.
3. It increased the data reliability.
4. Its main advantage is that it is a device which is a platform-independent.
5. This technology does not need a high powered computer system to run a cloud, because the applications run on a cloud not a desktop or laptop of a user.
6. This technology is highly reliable because the data stored on the cloud is secure. It creates more than one copies of data.
7. One of the most advantage of cloud computing that all the data is stored in one place, and a user can access the data at any place in the entire world with the help of internet.
8. Cloud Computing also allow the users for accessing the cloud data via mobile devices.

Disadvantages of Cloud Computing

Here are following various limitations or disadvantages of cloud computing:

1. Internet Connectivity
This technology needs an active internet connection for accessing the cloud. If there is no internet connection, then we will not store and access the data to/from the cloud.

2. Security
Another big disadvantage while working with the cloud computing technology is a security risk. Before sharing or saving the sensitive information of our company to the cloud computing, we must aware that there is a third-party service provider of cloud computing. So, hackers may affect your information. 

3. Slow Internet Connection

If you have an active internet connection but we cannot also access the services of cloud due to the speed of the net is slow. So, we must require a good internet connection. 

4. Privacy

In Cloud Computing the privacy is less so that an unauthorised user can access your information. To prevent this, the services of cloud computing provide password protection and work on secure servers with data encryption technology.