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What is the Full Form of ATM?

Here, we will learn what is ATM, how it works and what is its Full Form. So, let's start to read to understand it. 
In today's time, you use ATM in making the financial transactions of the bank. But, do you know what the full form of ATM is? 

"ATM is an abbreviation of Automated Teller Machine"

What is Automated Teller Machine?

The Automated Teller Machine is an electro-mechanical machine which allows the clients and customers of a bank to complete their financial transactions without the use of cashier, teller, and branch representative.

John Shepherd-Barron was a British inventor who invented the Automated Teller Machine which is a first cash machine. 
In the year 1969, the first ATM machine was installed at a branch of Barclay's bank in LONDON. In the year 1987, the first ATM machine was installed by HSBC in INDIA.

Most ATM machines are used for only withdrawing cash. But, some Automated Teller Machines are used for different purposes. Customers use the ATM machines for transferring funds, withdrawing money, depositing money, and other enquiries related to our account. 

These machines make the various process of bank very easy. We have no need to go to our banks for doing the processes which can be done by ATM machine. 

Let's discuss about the parts (Input and output devices) of Automated Teller Machine (ATM).

Input Devices of ATM

Following are the two input devices of Automated Teller Machine:

1. Card Reader 

This input device of Automated Teller Machine reads the account number and PIN which is stored on the magnetic strip available on the back-side of debit and credit card. 
After reading the details of the customer, the machine passes the details to the server. Then, the server allows the cash dispenser to dispense the cash based on the customer details. 

2. Keypad

The keypad device of Automated Teller Machine allows the users to enter the PIN number for authentication. It also allows you to enter the amount of money for depositing and withdrawing. 

Output Devices of ATM

Following are the four output devices of Automated Teller Machine:

1. Speaker

This output device is available in the ATM machines which produce sound when the user do their transaction on a machine. 

2. Receipt Printer 

This output device provides a receipt printed by ATM. The receipt tells the information about the withdraw and deposit amount, balance, and the date and time of the transaction. 

3. Display Screen 

Display screen is an output device of ATM which shows the account related information of customer whose plastic card is swiped or inserted in the ATM.
It also displays the transaction steps one by one to the customer until the transaction is successfully completed.  
Some Automated Teller Machines provides a touch screen. 

4. Cash Dispenser 

Cash Dispenser is the essential output device of ATM. This device dispense the cash which is entered by the ATM user.  

How ATM Works?

When you inserted your plastic card (debit/credit card) into the card reader of Automated Teller Machine, then the working of the machine begins. 

There is a magnetic strip on your debit and credit cards which contains your account number and PIN for security.  Some machines allow only swapping of cards and some restrict you to drop your cards in machines until the transaction is completed. 

When the card is successfully swiped or inserted then the machines asks for your PIN. When the authentication process is valid then the machine allows you to do the bank transactions.   

Other Full Forms of ATM

Let's discuss four other following full forms of ATM, which you may see in books or on the internet:

1. In terms of Telecommunication: 
"The Asynchronous Transfer Mode is the full form of ATM"

2. In terms of Job Profile: 
"The Area Training Manager is the full form of ATM"

3. In terms of Defense: 
"The Anti-Tactical Missile is the full form of ATM"
4. In terms of Fun: 
"The Any Time Fun is the full form of ATM"

What is the Full Form of INDIA?

Here, we will learn about INDIA and its full form. So, let's start to read to understand it. 

 "The Official Name of INDIA is Republic of INDIA"
'INDIA' is a South Asian country which is the seventh-largest by geographical area and the most democratic country in the World. According to the population, it is the second-largest country in the entire world. 

Do you know what the full form of INDIA is? When we want to know about INDIA, the first question is whether there is any full form of India.

INDIA Full-Form

As we mentioned above that 'INDIA' is a Country. So, it is not a short form or abbreviation. That's why it has no full form. But, somewhere on the internet or in books you will see some interesting full forms of INDIA. 
Following is one of the most popular full form of INDIA, which you may see on various places:

I: Independent 
N: Nation
D: Declared
I: In
A: August

Peoples also created several full forms of INDIA. Another most popular full form of INDIA is given below:

I: Independent 
N: National
D: Democratic
I: Intelligent
A: Area

How the name INDIA came into existence?

INDIA is a name which is inspired from the word 'INDUS'. INDUS (SINDHU) is a river which runs via major parts of Pakistan country, Jammu &Kashmir in India and western Tibet. 

Around 500 B.C, Persians came to India and pronounced 'S' as 'H', So, the name Sindhu (Indus River) became Hindu
In the 4th Century, Greeks evolved 'Hindus' to 'Indus'. And, in the 9th century Greeks shown  first appearance of INDUS in the old English. Finally, from the 17th century, the name 'INDIA' came into existence.

What is INDIA?

INDIA is a country name which is situated in the south Asia. This country is most democratic in the world whose current population is 1.39 billion (139 Crores). 'NEW DELHI' is the capital of this country and Narendra Modi is the present Prime Minister of 'INDIA'. 

According to the population, INDIA is the second-most-populous country after china in the entire world. And, according to the geographical land area, INDIA is the seventh-largest country. 
This country is surrounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, and Arabian Sea on the south-west. 

India has seven neighbours which share its land borders. Following are the names of neighbouring countries of India:
1. China, 
2. Nepal, 
3. Bhutan, 
4. Bangladesh, 
5. Pakistan, 
6. Myanmar, and 
7. Sri Lanka.

From the year 2020, INDIA has now 8 union territories and 28 states. Following are the name of 28 states of INDIA with their capital: 
1. Andhra Pradesh: Its capital is Hyderabad. 
2. Arunachal Pradesh: Its capital is Itanagar. 
3. Assam: Its capital is Dispur. 
4. Bihar: Its capital is Patna.
5. Chhattisgarh: Its capital is Raipur. 
6. Goa: Its capital is Panaji. 
7. Gujrat: Its capital is Gandhinagar. 
8. Haryana: Its capital is Chandigarh. 
9. Himachal Pradesh: Its capital is Shimla. 
10. Jharkhand: Its capital is Ranchi. 
11. Karnataka: Its capital is Banglore. 
12. Kerala: Its capital is Thiruvanthapuram. 
13. Madhya Pradesh: Its capital is Bhopal.
14. Maharashtra: Its capital is Mumbai. 
15. Manipur: Its capital is Imphal. 
16. Meghalaya: Its capital is Shilong. 
17. Mizoram: Its capital is Aizwal.
18. Nagaland: Its capital is Kohima.
19. Odisha: Its capital is Bhubaneswar. 
20. Punjab: Its capital is Chandigarh. 
21. Rajasthan: Its capital is Jaipur. 
22. Sikkim: Its capital is Gangtok. 
23. Tamil Nadu: Its capital is Chennai. 
24. Telangana: Its capital is Banglore.  
25. Tripura: Its capital is Agartala. 
26. Uttrakhand: Its capital is Dehradun.  
27. Uttar Pradesh: Its capital is Lucknow.  
28. West Bengal: Its capital is Kolkata.  

Following are the 8 Union Territories of INDIA: 
1. Andaman and Nicobar Island, 
2. Chandigarh, 
3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, 
4. Delhi, 
5. Jammu and Kashmir, 
6. Ladakh, 
7. Lakshadweep, and 
8. Puducherry. 

What is the Full Form of Love?

Here, we will understand about the Full Form of Love and the actual meaning of it. So, let's start to read to understand it. 

Love is a word which is used by almost everyone in this world, but do you know what the 'LOVE' stands for? We must know about its meaning before understanding its full form.

What is the Meaning of Love?

Love is an intense feeling that humans can experience. 
It is a word which is used for expressing the feelings and affections to anyone and anywhere in the world. The 'Love' can be towards anything, person, food, device, nature, place, and animal. Its experience is beyond boundaries. 

The Ancient Greeks defined the following seven words which express the different state of Love:
  • Storge:- Natural Affection
  • Eros:- Sexual or Erotica
  • Ludus:- Flirting
  • Philia:- Friendship
  • Agape:- Unconditional or Divine Love
  • Philautia:- Self Love
  • Pragma:- Committed, Married Love

Full-Form of Love

As we mentioned above, 'Love' is just an emotion, so it does not have any realistic full form. But, different people create their expansion of love according to their state of mind. From which some of the full form of Love are given below:

First Full form of Love

  L :  LONG - LASTING   

Second Full form of Love

  L :  LIFE' S                                                                                                                
  O :  ONLY     

Third Full form of Love

  L :  LIFE
  O :  OF 
  V :  VERY 

Fourth Full form of Love

  L :  LOSS
  O :  OF 
  E :  ENERGY   

Fifth Full form of Love

  L :  LACK 
  O :  OF 

Sixth Full form of Love


Seventh Full form of Love


What is the Meaning of True Love?

'True Love' is a state when two-person or couples feel happy, attached, and connected. True love is about treating someone with care, admiration, and respect. 
True love is real when there is no lies and cheats between the couples.  

Best Definitions of True Love

1. "True love is when the beauty of the heart enhances the beauty of the body."

2. "True Love is when you care about the small things which are related to him/her."

3. "True Love is when one person in a couple love another unconditionally without expecting anything from him/her."

How to Know if we are in Love?

If we want to know that we are fallen in Love or Not, then some of the following symptoms automatically comes in our nature:
1. If we are fallen in love, then we lost in our thoughts and avoid meeting with friends and other peoples. 
2. When we are in love, then our partner is always in the back of our mind. 
3. When we are in pain then his/her heart will cry. 
4. If we are fallen in love then we will find excuses to talk and stay with him or her.
5. When we are in love with someone, then we spent most of our time with that particular person.
6. If we are fallen in love with someone then we cannot imagine life without him or her. 

Examples of Love

In different situations, the feeling of 'Love' is different to each other. Our love for our parents may be different from our love for something or animal. 
The love between husband and wife can be different from the love between brother and sister, and the boy and girl.

Following are some sentences in which we use the word 'Love' for showing affection and attachments:
1. I love my Parents.
2. I love Holly-wood movies. 
3. I love Dosa. 
4. I love Computers. 
5. I love Travelling. 
6. I love Dogs.  

Architecture of Computer Network

The architecture of the computer network describes how the computers are organized in the network and how the tasks or activities are allocated to all the connected computers.

The computer network architecture gives a complete overview of the established network with a detailed view of all the resources. It illustrates the physical and logical layout of the  hardware, protocols, software, and the transmission media of the data to be transmitted. 

Following are the two most widely used types of network architecture:
1. Peer-to-Peer Network Architecture
2. Client/Server Architecture

Peer-to-Peer Network Architecture

It is a network architecture that connects multiple computers together via the internet. All the connected computers in this architecture share the same resources and have equal capabilities and responsibilities.  

In this type of network architecture, activities are allocated among all the clients or computers of the network. Each client or machine associated with this network act as a server, so there is no dedicated central server for file storing.

This type of network architecture is useful in different areas such as education, military, business, etc for file sharing, voice communication, and instant messaging. 
Peer-to-Peer network is often called P2P architecture. Following are some examples of Peer-to-Peer network architecture:
1. Napster
2. Skype
3. Bitcoin 
4. Bit Torrent 
5. LimeWire, etc. 

Advantages of Peer-to-Peer Network Architecture

Following are the advantages of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network architecture:
1. One of the main advantages of this network architecture is that it is cost-effective because it does not require any dedicated central server. That's why it is cheaper and affordable. 
2. In this network architecture, if any computer fails and stops working, then the other computers are not affected and they will continue working. 
3. This network architecture is flexible because the new clients can be easily configured.  
4. It does not require any network administrator for maintaining the complete network.
5. This architecture of networking is very easy to set-up and manage the network.

Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer Network Architecture

Following are the disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network architecture: 
1. This network architecture does not contain any centralized server. So, it is hard to take the backup of data as the data is stored in different locations in the network. 
2. Another disadvantage of this architecture is security. Security is very less because each computer performs its tasks independently and contains its own data.  

Client/Server Network Architecture

It is a network architecture which allows multiple end-users (clients) to request and receive the services from the centralized server. 
In this networking architecture, clients request the services of the server to use, and the server waits for the request to receive from the client and then replies to the client. 

The server is the heart of the client/server network which maintains the major operations of the network and provides resources or services to any client according to the client's request. The server also helps to communicate among all the clients of the same network. 

For example, if any client machine wants to transfer its data to another client machine on the same network, then it has to send the request to the server first for taking permission. Then, the server initiates the communication between both the clients and allows the clients for sharing the data.  

Following are four examples of Client/Server network architecture:
1. Webserver
2. File server
3. Domain Name Server (DNS)
4. Mail server

Advantages of Client/Server Network Architecture

Following are the advantages of Client/Server network architecture:
1. This network architecture is simple to install and manage. 
2. It is the perfect network management architecture to keep all the data safe. Any user can easily find the data because the data is stored centrally. 
3. As compared to the peer-to-peer network, this architecture of the network provides high security. 
4. This network architecture has a centralized server which stores the data shared on the network. So, it is easy to take the backup of data as the data is stored in one place. 
5. The performance of this network architecture is good because of the dedicated centralized server. 
6. This network architecture also extends the speed of sharing resources among the client machines. 

Disadvantages of Client/Server Network Architecture

Following are the disadvantages of Client/Server network architecture:
1. As there is a need for a large server and various networking devices such as a switch, hub, router, and modem. So, the cost of this architecture is high. And, it is not affordable for normal users. 
2. This type of network architecture requires an experienced network administrator for maintaining all the resources on the network and the server. 
3. If the centralized server gets fails, then the whole network will be affected. 

Components of Computer Network

The components of the computer network are the various software and hardware resources which are used for constructing the network at organizations as well as homes.

Following are the various components which are used to construct a network:
1. Client
2. Server
3. Transmission Media
4. NIC
5. Protocol
6. Network Operating System
7. Local Operating System
8. Hub 
9. Switch
10. Router 
11. Modem
12. Bridge
13. Repeater 
14. Gateway 


Clients are the computers or machines which communicate with the other clients or to the main server in the network. 
These machines send the request to the server and receive some services from the server for accessing and using the shared network resources. 


A server is a machine with a high configuration which stores all the data and information shared on the network in one place. This machine allows the clients to use network resources over the network.
The server receives the request from the client and serves the services according to the client's request.
There are various types of the server such as fax server, file server, mail server, web server, and communication server, which provide their multiple functions. 

Transmission Media

Transmission media is an important component of the computer network because without it network devices cannot work until they are connected to each other. 
Transmission media are the channels which carry data and information from one network device to another network device. In networking, transmission media consists of guided and unguided transmission media. 
Guided transmission media consists following type of cables for transmitting the data from one device to another over the network:
1. Twisted Pair cable
2. Co-axial Cable
3. Fibre Optic cable

Unguided transmission media consists following type of electromagnetic waves for transmitting the data from one device to another over the network:
1. Radio waves
2. Micro waves
3. Infrared waves


NIC is an abbreviation of the Network Interface Card. It is an essential hardware component that connects multiple computers for communication over the network. 
A network interface card is available in all the computers of a network which formats, receives, sends the data, and controls the data flow between the network and the computer. 

NIC is categorized into the following two types:
1. Wired NIC: This type of NIC is present in the motherboard and uses the cables and connectors as a medium for transmitting the data. 

2. Wireless NIC: This type of NIC contains the antenna to establish a connection over the wireless network. 


A protocol is a set of defined rules which are followed by each client of the network for data transmitting between two entities. Following are some common network protocols used for  networking:
1. IP (Internet Protocol),
2. TCP (Transfer Control Protocol),
3. UDP (User Datagram Protocol),
4. FTP (File Transfer Protocol),
5. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), etc. 

Network Operating system

Network Operating System is an operating system that is mainly designed only for the network systems. It is basically installed on clients and servers and allows the clients to share data, files, printers, applications, etc. over the network. 

Local Operating system

Local Operating System is an operating system that allows the users to access files and CD drives located on personal computers. It also allows printing the documents on a local printer. 


Hub is a hardware component or device of the computer network which splits the large network connection into small multiple workstations or computers. This networking device acts as a distribution center on the physical layer of the OSI model. 
When a client machine requests any information from the network or other specific client computer then the hub is the first device that receives the request via cable. And, then the hub transmits that request to the entire network. 


A switch is a small hardware component or device which is used in wired networks. It is like as a hub, it does not broadcast the message or request to the entire network, but it analyses the port to whom the request is to be transferred. As compared to the hub, it is built with more advanced features. 
This hardware component uses the physical addresses in each incoming request so that it can transfer the request to the correct port or destination. 
Due to the direct connection of source and destination, switch devices increase the speed of the network. 


A router is a device which allows users to share data, information, and resources between the connected multiple client computers of the different network. It performs all its functions in the third (network) layer of the OSI model. 
Routers are used to receive and analyze the data packets and it also forwards the received data packets to another network. It forwards the packets to another network on the basis of information available in the routing table. 


Modem means modulator-demodulator. It is a hardware component that uses the existing telephone line for connecting the computer to the internet. 
In computer networking, it transfers the digital data from one computer terminal to another computer terminal through a telephone network. There are two types of modem in a computer network:
1. Ethernet modem
2. Wireless modem


A bridge is a hardware device which interconnects the multiple local networks working on the same protocol. It provides data communication between the devices of connected multiple local networks. 
Bridge performs all its functions in the data link layer of the OSI model. Network administrators also used this hardware device for splitting the larger network into the small various networks. 


A repeater is a communication component of the computer network which regenerates the incoming signals over the same network before the signals become too weak. 
The main aim of the repeater is to extend the transmissions so that the signals easily cover the longer distance in the same network. Repeater performs all its tasks in the physical layer of the OSI model.   
A repeater is a two-port hardware device that connects the two segments of the network cable. 
Many repeater devices are used in wide area networks (WANs). 


Gateway is a special hardware component which acts as a gate between the two networks of different networking models. 
Gateway is a hardware device which performs all its tasks on the transport, session, application, and transport layer of the OSI reference model. It manages all the data that enter and exit from the network.
This hardware device is more complex than the switch or router hardware device because it uses more than one communication protocol. This device uses packet switching techniques for transferring information or data over the network.

Features of Computer Network

Let's understand each feature of the computer network one by one. 

1. Software and Hardware Sharing

Users can install the software applications on the main server, so the systems connected with the main server can easily access the installed applications centrally. 
So, there is no requirement to install software applications on every machine or system. As same as, the hardware can also be shared between the systems or machines. 

2. Data and File sharing

File Sharing and Data sharing is one of the major features provided by the computer network. 
This mechanism shares the confidential data, information, and files between the multiple systems which are connected via the guided (cables) or unguided (waves) transmission media. 

3. Performance

Computer network provides the fastest way of sharing knowledge and ideas over the network. The performance of the computer network is always related to the response time. 
If the computer network gives the minimum response time then the performance of the network is high.

4. Backup

As we all know that, all the software applications and files shared on the network are always stored in the central location (main server), therefore it is easy to take the backup of all lost or failed data.

5. Security 

It is another big characteristic provided by the computer network. 
Computer network specifies the powerful aspects of security in all the organizations because the data shared on the network should be safe from unauthorized users or hackers. 

6. Reliability

Computer networks are reliable because it provides alternative ways for data and file sharing between the systems in case of failure in the hardware or the case of connectivity problems. 
If there is any failure occurs in the network, then the recovery of data should be fast. 

7. Scalability 

A Computer network is scalable because it allows the users to add new devices to the existing network. 

Introduction to Computer Network

Here, we will learn about the definition, characteristics, uses, advantages, and disadvantages of Computer Network. 
These days, Computer Network has become an integral part of the business sector for professional tasks as well as personal tasks. The technologies of computer networks help the user to share information on the network and also allows them to communicate. 

What is a Computer Network?

Computer Network is a collection of two or more digital devices which are connected through communication channels. 
In networking, devices are connected by both wired or wireless media. The main objective of the computer network is to sharing of the resource among multiple digital devices. They also share operating systems or software on the remote systems. 
Computer Network also includes multiple devices such as routers, switches, hubs, and bridges which help to communicate between the two devices. These intermediate devices are known as Network devices.

The computers on the network may be connected through radio waves, cables, satellites, telephone lines, or infrared light beams. The nodes of the computer network are identified by the network addresses or hostnames.  

Characteristics of Computer Network

Following are the important characteristics of features of the Computer Network:
1. The main aim of the computer network is to sharing of resources from one digital device to another digital device. 
2. Files are saved at the centralized server. So, it is simple to keep the backup of all the files from the server. 
3. Computer network provides security which protects the data and information from unauthorized users.   
4. Computer networks are scalable which means that we can add new components or devices to the network. The adding of new devices or components increases the performance of the system. 

Uses of Computer Network

Following are the important uses of the Computer Network:
1. File and Resource Sharing: Computer Networks allow organizations to share resources and data files in a very effective way. 
Programs and software present in a computer are available to every other computer which are connected to the network. Network users can also share devices such as Scanners, printers, hard disks, CD-ROM drives, etc. 
2. Electronic Messaging: Email (Electronic-mail) is the most widely used network application which is used by millions of peoples for sending text messages, audios, videos, and photos to other people or group of people on this network.
3. E-Commerce: It is an important business which is doing with the consumers on the Internet. Computer network plays an important role in online transactions. Users and organizations can pay bills, sell, and buy items electronically.
4. Marketing and Sales: Marketing professionals use the computer network to exchange, analyze, and collect the data which is related to the customer needs. 
Sales application uses the computer network for providing teleshopping and online-reservation services. 
5. Server-Client model: In this model, the server is a powerful central computer that stores the data and is maintained by the system administrator. 
Clients are the simple machines that access the remote data stored in the server. 

Advantages of Computer Network

Following are the important advantages or pros of the Computer Network:
1. The main advantage of computer networking is that the files can easily be shared between the end-users. The users which are connected by the network can easily communicate by emails and instant messengers. 
2. Another big advantage is that the user can share their hardware and software resources in an organization. The computer network also helps people to share the scanners and printers.  
3. It helps the peoples to share the information at a very fast speed.
4. Computer networking boosts the capacity of the storage. 
5. As compared to the single machine multiple interconnected computers work at a fast speed and solve the problem instantly. 

Disadvantages of Computer Network

Following are the important disadvantages or cons of the Computer Network:
1. The main disadvantage of the computer network is that the amount of set-up the network including file servers, hardware, and networking cables is high. 
2. In the network, all the systems are connected to the main server. If the server fails then the system cannot be used in the future.
3. Viruses can spread easily to other computers because of the inter-connectivity of the multiple devices. If any computer on a network gets infected with malware then there is a high possibility for the remaining systems to gets infected too. 
4. One of the big disadvantages of computers connected to the network involves many security issues. For large networks such as WAN, hackers can easily access confidential data by using various specialized tools which are developed for this purpose.